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Culture of Manipur

Aimol Tribe Manipur presents a variety of traditions and cultural patterns. The most important aspect of Manipuri culture is that the people of Manipur have retained the traditional style along with the contemporary ones.



Manipur Culture

People of Manipur are very enthusiastic about their traditional art and dance forms. Each ethnic groups of Manipur has its own distinct art, music and dance forms. Ras Lila is the highest expression of artistic genius, devotion and excellence.

Manipur is a land of festivities. Throughout the year different festivals are celebrated by the different tribes of the state. Lai-Haraoba, Yaoshang, among others, are the main festivals of Manipur.
Manipuri people are also very enthusiastic about their food. The cuisine of Manipur is healthy and organic. The food of Manipur is both vegetarian and non vegetarian.

Tribes of Manipur

Culture of Manipur


Aimol Tribe

Aimol people mostly inhabit in Chandel district of Manipur. The word Aimol means a talisman or spells of magic chanted to cause a black magic. According to the other meaning Ai is a crab and Mual means valley. This tribe speaks the language which is a form of Tibeto-Burman language. They mostly practice the slash and burn agriculture. They are mainly Christians.

Anal Tribe

The Anal is a scheduled tribe in Manipur. According to 2001 India census, there are about 21,242 Anal people living in Manipur. This tribe is related to the Kuki tribe. Farming, carpentry and weaving are their main occupation of the people. They belong to Mongolia.

Gangte Tribe

Gangte is one of the Kuki tribes mostly residing in Manipur. According to 2001 census, about 15, 100 Gangte people reside in Manipur. The word Gangte is named after the place carrying Ganggam. The word Gangte means person from Ganggam. The Gangte society can be divided into Thadou, Hmar, Lushai, Paite, Simte, Vaiphei and Zou. The Gangte people speak the Kukish languages, which belong to the Tibeto-Burman family. Gahmasa Kut and Chapchal Kut are the major festivals among the tribe.

Kom Tribe

Kom tribe is one of the major tribes in Manipur. This tribe is mostly found in Senapati and Churachandrapur districts. They are rich in cultural and traditional heritage. A large number of Kom people follow Christianity. Farming is the main occupation of the tribe and they produce potatoes, millets, rice, maize and others.

Maring Tribe

Marings are a small tribal community residing in Manipur. The term Maring includes two words, Mei means fire and Ring means produce. This tribe practice farming and irrigation. They are also apt in making different articles of bamboo.

Chothe Tribe

Chothe tribe also known as Chowte or Chawte is a clan of the Kuki tribe inhabiting in Chandel district of Manipur. According to 2001 census about 2676 Chothe people live in Manipur. They follow Christianity. The Chothe man makes bamboo baskets and the women’s collects from firewood from the forest and sells them in the market.

Monsang tribe

Monsong community mostly lives in Chandel district of Manipur. Their language is similar with the Anals. Monsangs can be divided into two clans namely Simputi and Rinheti. The each clan is divided into 7 groups. They are mainly dependent on agriculture; many of them too have established trading expertise.

Chiru Tribe

Chiru community of Manipur is found in various districts of the state. The word Chiru means the seed of a plant. This tribe has some similarity with the Naga tribe. The tribe has own custom and traditions. A large number of Chiru people are involved in farming. They involve themselves in the growth and trading of fruits. They also practice the shifting cultivation. This tribe is also expert in weaving, carpentry and craftsmanship.

Koireng tribe

Koireng is a tribal community in Manipur. This tribe belongs to the old Kuki clans of the Kuki-Chin group. According to last census 1056 Koireng people live in Manipur. Their economy mainly depends on agriculture.

Thadou Tribe

Thadou is an ethnic tribe found in Churachandpur, Senapati, Ukhrul, South-Western hills and Sadar hills districts in Manipur. It is a major Kuki tribe. Large number of Thadou people follow Christianity.

Maram Tribe

Maram is a Naga tribe in Manipur. They belong to the sub-family of the Sino-Tibetan family. Ponghi, Rakak and Kanghi are the main festival among the tribe.

Hmar Tribe

Hmar tribe is scheduled caste in Manipur. This tribe belongs to the chin-Kuki-Mizo groups. Hmar tribe can be divided into many groups like Faihrein, Khawbung, Sakum, Ngente, Pakhoung. This tribe is dependent on forest. Shifting cultivation is the main occupation of the tribe. They also practice black smithy, carpentry, basketry and poultry.


Art and Craft of Manipur

Manipur is a state of unique art and culture. People of Manipur are very enthusiastic about their traditional art forms. Each ethnic groups of Manipur has its own distinct art and craft forms. The handicraft and handloom of Manipur is famous worldwide for its craftsmanship, colorfulness and sheer beauty. The people here are artistic and creative.

The art and craft of Manipur has a uniqueness of its own. They are very intricately made and beautiful to look at. Tourists coming to this northeastern state are mesmerized to see the sheer wonder of art and craft of Manipur. The tribes are apt in making different kinds of cane and bamboo products and in weaving. These products have now received recognition not only in the national market but also in the international market and are much in demand.

Handicraft of Manipur

Cane and bamboo product making is one of the prime occupations of the people of Manipur.Cane and bamboo products like headgears, ornaments, images, musical instruments, umbrella, furniture, mats, tray, chair, container, table, flower and different household items are made by the people.

Basketry

Culture of manipurBasketry is one of the famous occupations of the people of Manipur. The abundance of bamboo and cane facilitates basketry in Manipur. Baskets of varied shapes and sizes are prepared by the people. The baskets are made for domestic purpose, social and religious ceremonies. The basket items are Heijing Kharai, Likhai, sangbai, lukmai, Meruk and so on.Other than basketry fishing equipments are also made by people. Mairing and Meities are adept in making these products.

Art and Craft of ManipurPottery

Pottery is also one of the important occupations of the people. The pots made here by the people are of different shape and size and are beautifully decorated.

Craft in ManipurWeaving

Handloom industry is the largest cottage industry in Manipur. The distinctive feature of the handloom industry is that women are the only weavers. According to the National Handloom Census report 1988 there are 2.71 lakh looms in Manipur. Chitnu Tamitnu is considered the goddess of handloom. It is believed that she discovered handloom in the state. Manipuri shawls and sarees with intricate fabric and design are the specialty of handloom in the state. Bed sheets, bedcovers, tribal shawls, curtains, screens and gowns made here are also famous throughout India.

Cuisine of Manipur

The cuisine of Manipur is a simple platter consisting of rice, vegetables, fish and salad. The food of Manipur is healthy and organic. The food is both vegetarian and non vegetarian. The food is prepared both boiled and spicy.

Manipuri  Cuisine


The staple food of the Manipuri people includes rice with vegetables and fish. Ngri is one of the most favorite food of the Manipuris. It is a type of fermented fish and carries a distinct smell and is loved the most by the people of Manipur. Other than that Iromba, Chamfoot, Morok and the various herbs are the main food items.

Kitchen Garden

The Manipuris grow vegetables in kitchen gardens for regular intake. As such, the taste is different from the mainland cuisines. The people here use chili pepper other than the regular Garam masala to cook their food. Some of the vegetables eaten here are found only here like the Yendem (a kind of taro), Chawai, Hawai Mana, Koukha ( herb root), Loklei, Pulei; Komprek. The people also have mushrooms as an important part of their cuisine. The mushroom types include Uyen, Uchi-na (black slimy mushroom), Chengum, Kaglayen (lichen). The Manipuri people also eat fermented soya bean called Hawaijar and fermented fish dish called Ngari.

Different Manipuri Dishes

The dishes eaten by the Manipuri people include among others:
  • Eromba, a stew of boiled vegetables or potatoes with lots of red chilies and dried fish. This dish is garnished with Maroi and coriander leaves.
  • Chamthong or Kangshoi is prepared by boiling seasonal vegetables with coarsely chopped onions, Maroi, ginger, garlic cloves and salt. This dish is topped with Ngari and water. The dish is soupy in nature and is served with rice.
  • The salad and chutney pastes prepared include Morok Metpa which is a coarse paste prepared with green or dry red chilies. These chilies are boiled with Ngari and mashed with salt.
  • Kang-ngou or kaang-hou is a dish which is prepared with various vegetables fried dry in oil with traditional spices.
manipuri Food
  • Sana thongba is prepared with paneer in Manipuri style.
  • A-nganba is a dish which is prepared with steamed vegetables, such as pumpkin, peas, carrots, French beans, and so on.
  • Singju is a salad prepared with finely chopped cabbage, onions, lotus stems, tree beans, coriander, ginger, sinju pan and many seasonal vegetables mixed with Ngari.
  • Boiled kidney beans are eaten seasoned with red chili flakes, salt, roasted sesame powder and roasted chick peas powder.
  • Paknam is a fish cake.
  • Nga-thongba is a fish curry

Manipuri Dance


Ras Lila is one of the major Indian classical dance forms. Ras Lila is the epitome of Manipuri classical dance. It is based on the eternal love of Radha and Krishna as has been described in the Hindu scriptures. It is performed in front of temples. A deep sense of devotion is required to perform the dance form. It is performed at the temples of shree shree Govindjee in Imphal in the night of Basanta Purnima, Sarada Purnima and Kartik Purnima.

Culture of Manipur


It is said that king Khuyoi Tompok was a great patron of art and culture and developed Manipuri dance in the 2nd century AD. With the introduction of Vaishnavism in the 15th century the dance form started becoming familiar. The dance form found expression outside Manipur by the efforts of Rabindranath Tagore.

The dance form is a medium of worship and enjoyment. It is considered a door to the Divine. It is an inseparable part of all socio-cultural activities. The movement in the Manipuri dance form is subtle, delicate and graceful compared to the other Indian classical dance forms. The dance is accompanied by Pung, Kartal, Pena, Flute, harmonium, esraj, shankh and a singer.

The costume of the dance is colourful and elegant. The female dancers a costume called ‘Patloi’. The lehenga is called ‘Kumin’.

Nupa Pala


dances in Manipur

Nupa Pala is a group performance of male partners using cymbals and wearing white turbans that sing and dance to the accompaniment of Mridanga. The dance performance acts as a prologue to the Ras Lila. Nupa Pala dance is also known as Kartal Cholom or Cymbal Dance. The dance is started in a slow motion and the initial movements of this dance are soft and calm and slowly the people who are dancing dance with more speed. This dance is basically a group performance of male dancers using cymbals and wearing snow white ball-shaped large turbans.

Pung Cholom


Dances in Manipur


Pung Cholom dance is performed as dance in which the person dancing is trying to call the deity. This dance is performed before Sankirtana and Ras Lila. This dance is a very well polished classical dance. It is the soul of Manipuri Sankritana music and Manipuri classical dance. The dance performance is the essence of social and devotional ceremonies in Manipur.

Maibi Dance

Maibi dance is performed during the festival of Lai-Haraoba which is an annual ritual festival of the people of Manipur. In this dance the Maibis which are the priestesses and are considered to be spiritual mediums. They dance in a way describing the whole concept of how Manipuri people live.

Khamba Thoibi Dance


dances of Manipur

Khamba Thoibi dance is a duet dance comprising a male and a female partner. The dance is dedicated to the sylvan deity. The description of the dance is Thangjing of Moirang and is performed by Khamba and Thoibi, the hero and heroine of the Moirang episode of the hoary past.

Festivals of Manipur


Manipur is a land of festivities. There are different tribes dwelling in Manipur. Throughout the year different festivals are celebrated by the different tribes of the state. The different tribes celebrate the different festivals in their own distinct ways. The important festivals celebrated in the state are:

Lai-Haraoba

The Lai-Haraoba festival is celebrated in the honour of the sylvan deity known as Umang Lai. The festival is celebrated in the month of May. The festival represents the worship of deities and ancestors. The men and women perform a number of dances in front of the ancient divines in the festival. The Lai-Haraoba of God Thangjing is the most famous.

Yaoshang (Dol Jatra)


Festivals in Manipur


Yaoshang festival is the premier festival of Manipur and is also known as Dol Jatra. The festival is celebrated for five days starting from the full-moon day of Phalgun i.e. month of February/ March. An inseparable part of this festival is the Thabal Chongba dance.

Ratha Jatra


Ratha Jatra is an important festival of the Hindus living in Manipur. The festival is celebrated for 10 days in the month of Ingen(June/July). In this festival Lord Jaganath leaves his temple in a Rath and the rath is pulled by pulled by pilgrims.

Ramjan Id

Ramjan Id is the most popular festival of the Manipuri Muslims (Meitei Pangal) in Manipur. During this festival Muslims practice self denial of food, drink and other items. And keep a fast; this fast is broken on the day of Id-Ul-Fitre.

Kut  Festival


festivals inManipur

Kut festival is a festival of the different tribe’s of Kuki-Chin-Mizo groups of Manipur. The festival is celebrated on 1st November in the month of autumn and is a happy occasion for villagers whose food stock was plentiful. The festival is a thanks giving festival and is in the honour of the giver of an abundant harvest.

Gang-Ngai

Gang –Ngai is the festival of Kabui Nagas. The festival is celebrated for a period of five days. The festival opens with the omen taking ceremony on the first day and the rest of days are celebrated by dances and feast.

Chumpha Festival

The Chumpa festival is an important festival of the Tangkhul Nagas. The festival is celebrated for seven days in the month of December. The festival is held after the harvest period.

Christmas

The people of Manipur celebrate Christmas with joy and happiness by praying Jesus Christ, eating and singing.

Cheiraoba


Cheiraoba is the Manipur New Year. The Manipur New Year is in the month of April. During the festivities traditional delicacies are offered to the Gods and Goddesses. The festival is celebrated in April. During the festival time the villagers climb the nearest hill as according to the traditional belief this helps in bringing good fortune.

Heikru Hidongba


festivals of manipur


Heikru Hidongba is celebrated in the month of September. The festival is a boat race which is celebrated with full joy. Long boats are used to accommodate a large number of rowers. Idol of lord Vishnu is installed before the commencement of the race.

Ningol Chakouba

Ningol Chakouba is a social festival of the people of Manipur. In this festival the married women of the family come. The festival is celebrated in the month of November on the second day of new Moon.

Lui Ngai Ni

Lui Ngai Ni is also known as seed sowing festival. It is a collective festival of Nagas observed on the 15 February every year. In this festival the Naga tribes start their cultivation by sowing seeds.

Kwak Jatra



festivals in manipur

Kwak Jatra  is the festival of goddess Durga. The festival is celebrated in the same manner like it is celebrated all over India. The festival is also known as Durga Puja and is celebrated in the month of October.

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